ISGB Vertical Dismountable Inline Centrifugal Pump

Product name: ISGB vertical dismountable pipeline centrifugal pumpProduct category: pipeline centrifugal pumpI. Product Overview ISGB vertical dismountable pipeline centrifugal pump is a product with new structure and advanced technology developed on the basis of ISG-type pump.The vertical pump,Website:http://www.hpumpequipment.com, especially in its overall structure, makes bold breakthrough in design. Independent bearing body and pump shaft supporting are adopted to solve the shortcomings of motor shaft supporting in former vertical pump; we use impeller of good hydraulic model to eliminate the shortcomings of axial force of in former vertical pump; Y series standard universal motor is used to solve the problem in replacement of supporting parts for extended shaft motor in former vertical pump; at the same time, 100% of detachable structure solves the problem in replacement of high-power pump bearings, mechanical seal, impeller and pump shaft. Compared with similar domestic products, this pump enjoys many irreplaceable advantages, such as stable operation, long life, more convenient supporting, easier maintenance, and so on. It comes out in front in domestic vertical pump products, has leading technologies in China, and is the most ideal product to replace ISG vertical pump, IS centrifugal pump, S-type double-suction centrifugal pump and other regular centrifugal pumps.II. Product Features 1. The pump has the features of vertical structure, easy installation, unique motor design and pump body connection using connector, high concentricity, high processing precision, greatly reduced footprint and 30% to 60% investment reduction in pumping station construction. Solid base, smart casting and appearance processing gives the vertical centrifugal pump a new beauty, let the product show its artistic charm, and is comparable to vertical pumps manufactured by foreign well-known manufacturers. 2. The pump is equipped with standard Y series universal motor manufactured by well-known domestic manufacturers to give a smooth operation and low noise. 3. Well-known international brand precision bearings are used to give the lump high precision, good reliability and long life. 4. For the impeller, we use the best hydraulic model with self-balancing axial force in 1990s to greatly extend the life of pump bearings and mechanical seal. 5. The bearings in motor bearing base are equipped with filling hole and drain hole, which makes it convenient for bearing maintenance. 6. Removable rigid intermediate coupling allows the pump to start without vibration and noise. The rotating parts are equipped with a reliable safety cover, and the security is excellent. 7. Mechanical seals are made of stainless steel, tungsten carbide, fluorine rubber and other materials. They have the features of high temperature and pressure resistance, long operating life, no leakage and no shaft wear, so as to ensure a clean and tidy working environment. 8. Unique pump cover design: by dismounting rigid intermediate coupling and pump cover nut, you can easily take out the shaft base, pump cover, shaft and impeller, and replace the mechanical seal and impeller, without having to dismount the motor, pump body and pipeline. Maintenance is convenient and quick.III. Working Conditions: 1. The maximum working pressure of pump system is 1.6 MPa, namely, pump inlet pressure + pump head ≤1.6 MPa (please notify us when you order the product if the working pressure of pump headis higher than 1.6 MPa, so that we use steel when manufacturing pump flow parts and coupling parts). 2. The conveyance medium is water or other liquids with physical and chemical natures similar to water. (Please notify us when you order the product if there are small particles in conveyance medium, so that we equip it with wear-resistant mechanical seal). 3. Environmental temperature ≤40℃, altitude ≤1000m, relative humidity ≤95%.IV. Meaning of Models Installation SizeStructure DrawingPump body: pipe-connected spiral pump cover, designed and manufactured by using best modern hydraulic model. The flanges accord with GB4216.5 standard, with Rp1/4 or Rp3/8 pressure-measuring opening.Impeller: closed steel impeller. Excellent hydraulic model and unique structure ensure the efficiency of pump and reliably eliminates axial force of pump.Mechanical seal: used in a water temperature of below 150℃. It is maintenance free and no turning limitation. Special design ensures remedy and pressurization of rotating ring.Pump shaft: optimized pump shaft is integrated with coupling to shorten the size of rotating bearing, allow the pump to run safely and reliably, and reduce the size of entire pump.Pump bearing: it is manufactured with imported NTN or NSK precise bearings and has the features of low noise and long service life.Motor: Y or Y2 series squirrel-cage AC motor; model: B5. Universal motor is used for convenient repair and maintenance. It also has oil hole for lubrication and maintenance of bearings.Curve GraphPerformance ParametersModelFlow QuantityHead mEfficiency (%)Rotating Speed (R / min)Motor Power (KW)Cavitation Residue (NPSH) rWeight (kg)m3/hL/s15-801.11.52.00.30.420.558.58726343428000.182.31720-1101.82.53.30.50.690.91161513.525343528000.372.32520-1601.82.53.30.50.690.9133323019252329000.752.32925-1102.845.20.781.111.44161513.534424129000.552.32625-1252.845.20.781.111.4420.6201828363529000.752.32825-125A2.53.64.60.691.01.28171614.43529000.552.32725-1602.845.20.781.111.4433323024323329001.52.33925-160A2.63.74.90.121.031.362928263129001.12.33432-1004.512.512.54429000.552.02732-100(I)4.46.38.31.221.752.3213.212.511.348545329000.752.03232-1253.556.50.971.391.822201840444229000.752.32832-125A3.14.55.80.861.251.6117.61614.44329000.552.32832-1606.55324429001.52.33932-160A41.1253429001.12.03832-160(I)4.46.38.31.221.752.3233.23230.234404229002.22.04.732-2004.512.55032290032.05532-200(I)4.46.38.31.221.752.3250.55048263335290042.04332-200A2.845.20.781.111.4444.64442.734404229002.22.07440-1004.46.38.31.221.752.3113.212.511.348545329000.552.33240-100A3.95.67.41.081.562.0610.61095229000.372.33240-1254.46.38.31.221.752.3121201841464329001.12.33440-125A3.95.67.41.081.562.0617.61614.440454129000.752.33340-1604.46.38.31.221.752.3133323035404029002.22.34740-160A4.15.97.81.141.642.17292826.334393929001.52.34340-160B3.85.57.21.061.532.025.52422.534383729001.12.33840-2004.46.38.31.221.752.3151504826333229004.02.37440-200A4.15.97.81.141.642.1745444226313029003.02.36240-200B3.75.37.01.031.471.94383634.52929002.22.35240-2504.46.38.31.221.752.3182807424282829007.52.310540-250A4.15.97.81.141.642.1772706524282729005.52.39840-250B3.85.57.01.061.531.9461.5605623272629004.02.37740-100(I)8.812.516.32.443.474.5313.212.511.355626029001.12.33440-100(I)A81114.52.223.054.0310.61096029000.752.33240-125(I)8.812.516.32.443.474.5321.22017.849585729001.52.33840-125(I)A81114.52.223.054.031716145729001.12.33340-160(I)8.812.516.32.443.474.5333323045525129003.02.35640-160(I)A8.211.715.22.283.254.2229282644515029002.22.34740-160(I)B7.310.413.52.382.893.75232220.55029001.52.34340-200(I)8.812.516.32.443.474.5351.2504838464629005.52.38540-200(I)A8.311.715.32.313.254.2545.0444237454529004.02.37540-200(I)B7.510.613.82.082.943.8337363444290032.36340-250(I)8.812.516.32.443.474.5381.28077.53138402900112.314540-250(I)A8.211.615.22.283.224.2271.070683829007.52.39540-250(I)B7.610.8142.113.03.8961.460583729005.52.39440-250(I)C7.110.013.11.972.783.6453.25250.43629005.52.38850-1008.812.516.32.443.474.5313.612.511.355626029001.12.33650-100A81114.52.223.054.03111096029000.752.33550-1258.812.516.32.443.474.5321.52017.849585729001.52.34350-125A81114.52.223.054.031716145729001.12.33850-1608.812.516.32.443.474.5333323045523029003.02.35950-160A8.211.715.22.283.254.2229282644515029002.22.35150-160B7.310.413.52.382.893.75232220.55029001.52.34750-2008.812.516.32.443.474.5352504838464629005.52.310150-200A8.311.715.32.313.254.2545.8444237454529004.02.38050-200B7.510.613.82.082.943.8337363444290032.36850-2508.812.516.32.443.474.53828077.52938402900112.316050-250A8.211.615.22.283.224.2271.570683829007.52.311550-250B7.610.8142.113.03.8961.460583729005.52.311450-250C7.110.013.11.972.783.6453.25250.43629005.52.310850-100(I)17.52532.54.866.949.0313.712.510.567696929001.52.54150-100(I)A15.622.3294.36.198.111108.465676829001.12.53650-125(I)17.52532.54.866.949.0321.5201860686729003.02.55650-125(I)A15.622.3294.336.198.1171613.658666529002.22.548ModelFlow QuantityHead mEfficiency (%)Rotating Speed (R / min)Motor Power (KW)Cavitation Residue (NPSH) rWeight (kg)m3/hL/s50-160(I)17.52532.54.686.949.0334.43227.554636029004.02.57250-160(I)A16.423.430.44.566.58.4430282454625929003.02.57150-160(I)B15.021.6284.176.07.78262420.65829002.22.55950-200(I)17.52532.54.866.949.0352.75045.549585929007.52.510850-200(I)A16.423.530.54.566.538.4746.4444048575829005.52.510750-200(I)B15.221.828.34.226.067.86403834.555290042.510050-250(I)17.52532.54.866.949.03828076.5395052290015.02.517550-250(I)A16.423.430.54.566.58.4771.57067395052290011.02.516550-250(I)B1521.6284.176.07.78616057.438495429007.52.516550-315(I)17.52532.54.866.949.03128125122304044290030.02.531050-315(I)A16.623.7314.616.588.61151131103040442900222.524550-315(I)B15.722.529.24.366.258.01031019839290018.52.521550-315(I)C14.420.626.84.05.727.4486858338290015.02.519565-10017.52532.54.866.949.0313.712.510.567696929001.52.54665-100A15.622.3294.36.198.111108.465676829001.12.54165-12517.52532.54.866.949.0321.62018606867290032.55865-125A15.622.3294.336.198.1171614.458666529002.22.54965-16017.52532.54.866.949.0334.43227.554636029004.02.57565-160A16.423.430.44.566.58.44302824546259290032.57565-160B15.021.6284.176.07.78262420.65829002.22.56365-20017.52532.54.866.949.0352.75045.549585929007.52.510765-200A16.423.530.54.566.538.4746.4444048575829005.52.510765-200B15.221.828.34.226.067.86403834.555290042.510065-25017.52532.54.866.949.03828076.53950522900152.518065-250A16.423.430.54.566.58.4771.570673950522900112.517065-250B1521.6284.176.07.78616057.438495429007.52.517065-31517.52532.54.866.949.031271251223240442900302.532065-315A16.623.7314.616.588.61151131103240442900222.525565-315B15.722.529.24.366.258.01031019839290018.52.522565-315C14.420.626.84.05.727.44868583382900152.520565-100(I)3550659.7213.918.113.812.510677370290033.06365-100(I)A31.344.7588.712.416.11110866726929002.23.05365-125(I)3550659.7213.918.12220176772.57029005.53.09965-125(I)A31.345588.712.516.117.51613.6667169290043.07865-160(I)3550659.7213.918.135322863717029007.53.010365-160(I)A32.746.7619.11316.930.6282462706929005.53.010365-160(I)B30.343.356.38.412.015.626242169290043.09765-200(I)3550659.7213.918.153.550465567682900153.017665-200(I)A32.847619.113.116.94744405466672900113.016665-200(I)B30.543.556.68.512.115.740.63833.46529007.53.011465-250(I)3550659.7213.918.18380725259602900223.023565-250(I)A32.546.7619.013.016.9737063525960290018.53.020565-250(I)B3043.3568.31215.6626054582900153.018065-315(I)3550659.7213.918.11281251214454572900373.035065-315(I)A32.546.560.59.012.916.8112.6110106.44354572900303.033565-315(I)B3144.5588.612.416.1102.510098532900303.033565-315(I)C294153.68.111.414.9878583512900223.027080-1003550659.7213.918.113.812.510677370290033.06380-100A31.344.7588.712.516.11110866726929002.23.05480-1253550659.7213.918.12220176772.57029005.53.09980-125A31.345588.712.516.117.51613.6667169290043.079ModelFlow QuantityHead mEfficiency (%)Rotating Speed (R / min)Motor Power (KW)Cavitation Residue (NPSH) rWeight (kg)m3/hL/s80-1603550659.7213.918.135322863717029007.53.010580-160A32.746.7619.113.016.930.6282462706929005.53.010580-160B30.343.356.38.412.015.626242169290043.09880-2003550659.7213.918.153.550465567682900153.017580-200A32.847619.113.116.94744405466672900113.016580-200B30.543.556.68.512.115.740.63833.46529007.53.011580-2503550659.7213.918.18380725259602900223.024080-250A32.546.7619.013.016.9737063525960290018.53.021080-250B3043.3568.312.015.6626054582900153.018580-3153550659.7213.918.11281251224354572900373.035580-315A32.546.560.59.012.916.8112.6110107.44354572900303.034080-315B3144.5588.612.416.1102.510098532900303.034080-315C294153.68.111.414.9988583512900223.027580-3503550659.7213.918.11461501425566672900553.057080-350A3144.5588.612.416.1138.4142134.8652900453.047080-350B294153.68.111.414.9131.4135127.8632900373.044080-100(I)7010013019.427.836.113.612.51166767529005.54.510880-100(I)A62.68911617.424.732.211108.8647474290044.58780-125(I)7010013019.427.836.123.520147076652900114.516380-125(I)A62.68911617.424.732.219161168746529007.54.511380-160(I)7010013019.427.836.136.532247076652900154.518480-160(I)A65.493.5121.618.226.033.83228216874672900114.517480-160(I)B60.686.6112.516.824.131.37224187229007.54.517480-200(I)7010013019.427.836.15450426574732900224.025180-200(I)A65.493.5121.618.226.033.847.54437677372290018.54.022080-200(I)B618711316.924.231.4413832712900154.019880-250(I)7010013019.427.836.18780686269682900374.033080-250(I)A65.493.5121.618.226.033.8767059.56168672900304.031580-250(I)B618711316.924.231.4656051662900224.031580-315(I)7010013019.427.836.11321251145566672900754.067580-315(I)A66.595123.618.526.434.31191131035566672900554.053580-315(I)B639011717.52532.5106.610192652900454.042080-315(I)C588210716.122.829.7908576632900374.0366100-1007010013019.427.836.113.612.51166767529005.54.5113100-100A62.68911617.44732.211108.8647474290044.591100-1257010013019.427.836.123.520147076652900114.5169100-125A62.68911617.424.732.219161168746329007.54.5118100-1607010013019.427.836.136.532247076652900154.5191100-160A65.493.5121.618.226.033.83228216874672900114.5181100-160B60.686.6112.516.824.131.32724187229007.54.5181100-2007010013019.427.836.15450426574732900224.0245100-200A65.493.5121.618.226.033.847.54437647372290018.54.0215100-200B618711316.924.231.4413832712900154.0193100-2507010013019.427.836.18780686269682900374.0345100-250A65.493.5121.618.226.033.8767059.56168672900304.0330100-250B618711316.924.231.4656051662900334.0330100-3157010013019.427.836.11321251145566672900754.0689100-315A66.595123.618.526.434.31191131036566672900554.0549100-315B639011717.52532.5106.610192652900454.0439100-315C588210716.122.829.7908576632900374.0385100-100(I)9616019226.744.453.31412.5106473702900114.5115100-125(I)9616019226.744.453.32420146274692900154.5168100-125(I)A8414016823.33946.72017126472682900114.5168100-160(I)9616019226.744.453.33632276979752900225.6210100-160(I)A8414016823.33946.7322823.5667672290018.55.0210100-200(I)9616019226.744.453.35350456979782900375.2402100-200(I)A8414016823.33946.74845406474732900304.5395100-200(I)B6010012016.727.833.3434036722900224.5360100-250(I)9616019226.744.453.38380726577742900554.8560100-250(I)A8414016823.33946.77572656072692900454.5420100-250(I)B6010012016.727.833.3686558702900374.5400100-3506010012016.727.833.3153.61501427257742900904.0950100-350A618711316.924.231.4145.6142134752900754.0830ModelFlow QuantityHead mEfficiency (%)Rotating Speed (R / min)Motor Power (KW)Cavitation Residue (NPSH) rWeight (kg)m3/hL/s100-350B588210716.122.829.7138.6135127752900554.0600125-1009616019226.744.453.31312.512822900114.0180125-100A8614317223.939.747.810.4109.67729007.54.0125125-1259616019226.744.453.322.62017802900154.0220125-125A8614317223.939.747.8181613.6772900114.0210125-1609616019226.744.453.3363228782900224.0265125-160A901501802541.75031.52824.576290018.54.0230125-160B8313816621.738.346.1272421732900154.0215125-2009616019226.744.453.3555046772900375.5395125-200A901501802541.75048.44440.5762900305.5380125-200B8313816621.738.346.141.337.534.5752900225.5320125-2509616019226.744.453.3878073752900555.0580125-250A901501802541.750767084742900455.5490125-250B8313816621.738.346.1656055732900375.5430125-3159616019226.744.753.3133125119702900905.0790125-315A901501802541.750117110104.6702900755.0710125-315B8614317223.939.747.8106.410095.2692900755.0705125-315C80.513416122.437.244.7968886672900555.0585150-1259616019226.744.453.322.624176676762900114.0210150-125A901501802541.750181613.67729007.54.0130150-1609616019226.744.453.3363227752900224.0270150-160A901501802541.750322823.576290018.54.0230150-160B8414016823.33946.7272421732900154.0220150-20014020026038.955.672.213.812.510.66878781450153.0265150-200A125176232.534.749.764.611108.56676761450113.0244150-200B8414016823.33946.7413834752900224.0275150-25014020026038.955.672.221.82017737977145018.53.0300150-250A129184.424035.851.266.718.51714.47278761450153.0262150-250B117167217.532.546.460.415.21412761450113.0241150-31514020026038.955.672.233.832287078731450302.5410150-315A13118724336.451.967.529.52824.56977771450223.5335150-315B12117322533.548.162.525242176145018.53.5315150-3509616019226.744.453.3153.6150142.88029001105.5970150-350A901501802541.750145.6142134.8702900905.2790150-350B8414016823.33946.7138.8135127.86576742900755.5705150-40014020026038.955.672.25350446875711450453.5490150-400A13118724336.451.967.546.64438.36774701450373.5454150-400B122174226.533.948.362.9403833731450303.5435150-400C11216020831.144.457.8343228711450223.5365150-250(I)12020024033.355.666.78780726576742900754.5702150-250(I)A11218722431.151.962.27670636475732900554.5561150-250(I)B10417320828.948.157.86560546374722900454.5460150-315(I)12020024033.355.666.713312512058737529001104.5980150-315(I)A11218722431.151.962.21161101055772742900904.5800150-315(I)B10417320828.948.157.810095915570722900754.5724200-20014020026038.955.672.213.812.510.66878781450153.0265200-200A125179232.534.749.764.611108.56676761450113.0244200-25014020026038.955.672.221.82017737977145018.53.0305200-250A129184.424035.851.266.718.51714.47278761450153.0267200-250B117167217.532.546.460.415.21412761450113.0246200-31514020026038.955.672.233.832287078781450303.5417200-315A13118924336.451.967.529.52824.56977771450223.5342200-315B12117322533.648.162.525242176145018.53.5322200-40014020026038.955.672.25350446875711450453.5498200-400A13118724336.451.967.546.64438.36774701450373.5462200-400B122174226.533.948.562.9403833731450303.5443200-400C11216020831.344.457.8343228711450223.5373200-200(I)28040052077.8111.114413.412.510.57080791450224.0382200-200(I)A25035846569.490.4129.210.7108.5687877145018.54.0346200-250(I)28040052077.8111.114422.220147580721450304.0475200-250(I)A25035846569.499.4129.2181411.27378701450204.0405200-250(I)B22632241962.889.4116.414.4137.3707567145018.54.0387200-315(I)28040052077.8111.41443632267380751450554.0675ModelFlow QuantityHead mEfficiency (%)Rotating Speed (R / min)Motor Power (KW)Cavitation Residue (NPSH) rWeight (kg)m3/hL/s200-315(I)A26237448672.8103.913531.528237279741450454.0560200-315(I)B24234645067.296.1125272419.5781450374.0535200-400(I)28040052077.8111.414454.550397581771450754.0830200-400(I)A26237448672.8103.9135484434801450754.0830200-400(I)B24234645067.296.112541.43829.6781450555.0685200-400(I)C22432041662.288.9115.634.93225761450455.0580250-25035055065097.2152.8180.52220167882811450455.0620250-250A30050060018.3139166.718.317147680801450375.0550250-23530050060083.3139166.71412.5117378701480224.5410250-30030050060083.3139166.7222016781480374.5550250-31535055065097.2152.8180.53432287680791450755.5890250-315A30050060083.3139166.729.528247478771450555.5690250-315B26045052072.2125144.42524207074721450455.5620250-40030050060083.3139166.754.55039721480904.51530300-23554072090015020025020.51815.07781741450555.01075300-235A45060072012516620017.21512.57479771450455.0970300-235B420540650116.715018114.312.810.57378701450375.0925300-25054072090015020025022.520178083841450556.01085300-250A45060072013616620019.51714811450456.0980300-300540720900150200250322823821480755.01230300-300A45060072012516620027.52420801480755.01095300-300B420540650116.7150181242117781480555.0980300-315540720900150200250353226841480904.51350300-315A460650800127.818022231.52823.5801480754.51240300-315B420580700116.7161194272420.0781480554.51100300-380480720900133.320025048443484970132.05.01900300-380A444666833123.3185231.441.4383080970110.05.01700300-380B400614764113.6170.6213.13532357897090.05.01530300-39054072090015020025020.51815.5788176980555.01300300-390A45060072012616720017.21512.8777975980455.01220300-390B4005406501111501801412.511.5747776980375.01100300-400450600720125166200555042.57814801105.01500300-480540720900150200250312824798180980755.01500300-480A45060072012616620027.42420.0788079980755.01280300-480B40054065011115018024211779980555.01180350-2356008009601672222671412.510.58083821480374.51050350-30060080096016722226722.52017.57982711480554.51230350-31560080096016722226735.53228.5841480904.51650350-400600800960167222267555045.58314801604.51950400-30092010801300228300361232016781480906.01570400-3158201080130020530034436.532277614801326.01880500-300100012001450277.8333403232016.08014801106.01800500-31510001200145027833340334.532277814801606.02070



Send product request

To: SHANGHAI HUANGHE PUMP MANUFACTURE CO.,LTD
Your E-mail:
Message text:


Send to other suppliers

Other supplier products

KYB Series Self-priming Sliding Plate Pump
KYB Series Self-priming Sliding Plate Pump Product name: KYB series self-priming sliding vane pump Product category: Gear type oil pump1. Product Summary:One advantage of KYB series (stainle...
CQG Model High Temperature Resistance Magnetic Drive Pump
CQG Model High Temperature Resistance Magnetic Drive Pump Product name: CQG series high temperature resistant magnetic drive pumpProduct category: Magnetic pump1.Product Summary:Together with the need of m...
KDWY Model Trailer Type Diesel Water Lift Pump-Flood And Draining Waterlogging(4-wheel Trailer)
KDWY Model Trailer Type Diesel Water Lift Pump-Flood And Draining Waterlogging(4-wheel Trailer) 1.Applications: KDWY model trailer-type diesel engine water lift pump is horizontal,Website:http://www.hpumpequipment.com, single-stage, single suc...
FYS Fluoroplastics Alloy Submerged Pump
FYS Fluoroplastics Alloy Submerged Pump Product name:FYS Fluoroplastics Alloy Submerged Pump Product category:Submerged Pump1.Product overview :FYS Fluoroplastics Alloy vertical submerge...
S And SH Single-stage Double Suction Pump
S And SH Single-stage Double Suction Pump Product name: S,Website:http://www.hpumpequipment.com, SH-single-stage double suction pumpProduct Categories: Centrifugal PumpI. Product descriptio...
All supplier products

Same products

Litree Home Use Water Purifier
Litree Home Use Water Purifier Seller: Litree Excellent Water Quality:The aperture size of Litree UF membrane is less than 0.01micron (10nm), c...
Litree Water Treatment Equipment
Litree Water Treatment Equipment Seller: Litree Founded in 1992, a professinonal high-tech group speciallized in research, development and ...
Litree Pressure Vessel Water Treatment
Litree Pressure Vessel Water Treatment Seller: Litree LITREE company is the biggest hollow fiber UF membrane manufacturer in China, we provide quality ...
GAS EQUIPMENTS
GAS EQUIPMENTS Seller: Luhai Energy Co., Ltd GAS EQUIPMENTS DeRun strategy partner of gas equipment manufacture had purchased a...
china color galvanized sheet and panel for wall and roof
china color galvanized sheet and panel for wall and roof Seller: Shouguang dongye import & export co.,ltd The purlin system connects the main structure and the roof ( wall) system, is an important part o...