Treatment To Purify Water

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Water that is biologically contaminated or toxic must be purified before it is suitable for drinking and other purposes. Biologically contaminated water contains bacteria, and sometimes viruses and protozoa, that may cause gastrointestinal issues or other illness if consumed. Toxic water may also contain chemicals, such as pesticides, which are toxic to humans and many other animals. Water can undergo one or many purification processes, depending on the purpose for which it will be used.

Pre-Treatment
Ground water pumping must be separated from containment water resources in order to avoid the possible spreading of contamination. The physical infrastructure should be made using appropriate materials and constructed in such a manner so accidental contamination can't occur. Pre-conditioning can be done by treating with soda ash (or sodium carbonate) to form the precipitate of calcium carbonate through the common-ion effect. Subsequently, many techniques are used to remove the fine particles and inorganic materials.

Sedimentation
Another good method of purifying water is by adjusting its pH value. Hydrated lime is extensively applied to maintain the pH of water for further treatment. Hydrated lime is most commonly used for pH adjustment of municipal water bodies, as it is easily available and inexpensive. Ionic water is highly corrosive, and contains excessive amounts of carbon dioxide. The lime causes the carbon dioxide to precipitate out to form calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate can be easily separated from water through filtration.

The longer the water is in the sedimentation tank and the deeper the tank is, the more floc will fall and be removed. The fallen floc becomes a layer of sludge on the bottom of the basin and must be cleaned regularly.

Flocculation
Flocculation is a process that makes water clear. Coagulants such as aluminum hydroxide and the homopolymer polyDADMAC(all written for Diallyldimethyl Ammoniumchloride, CAS: 7398-69-8) are useful for flocculating water. After adding these agents, water treatment facilities stir the water until particulate matter begins to stick together and becomes suspended. Once the matter is suspended, it's easy to remove.

Disinfection
Disinfection involves the use of chemicals such as chlorine for purification. Chlorine kills pathogens that have survived the previous steps of filtration; E. coli may be one of them. Most public water systems require chemical disinfection.



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